Adams, J. F., and L. F. Lassen.
"Leech Therapy for Venous Congestion Following Myocutaneous Pectoralis Flap Reconstruction."
ORL - Head & Neck Nursing 13(1) (Winter 1995): 12-14.


Daane, S., et al.
"Clinical Use of Leeches in Reconstructive Surgery."
American Journal of Orthopedics 26(8) (August 1997): 528-532.


de Chalain, T., et al.
"Successful Use of Leeches in the Treatment of Purpura Fulminans."
Annals of Plastic Surgery 35(3) (September 1995): 300-306.


de Chalain, T. M.
"Exploring the Use of the Medicinal Leech: A Clinical Risk-Benefit Analysis."
Source Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery 12(3) (April 1996): 165-172.


de Chalain, T., and G. Jones.
"Replantation of the Avulsed Pinna: 100 Percent Survival with a Single Arterial Anastomosis and Substitution of Leeches for a Venous Anastomosis."
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 95(7) (June 1995): 1275-1279.


Godfrey, K.
"Uses of Leeches and Leech Saliva in Clinical Practice."
Nursing Times 93(9) (Feb 26-Mar 4, 1997): 62-63.


Goessl, C., et al.
"Leech Therapy for Massive Scrotal Hematoma Following Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty."
Journal of Urology 158(2) (August 1997): 545.


Haycox, C. L., et al.
"Indications and Complications of Medicinal Leech Therapy."
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 33(6) (December 1995): 1053-1055.


Iafolla, A. K.
"Medicinal Leeches in the Postoperative Care of Bladder Exstrophy."
Journal of Perinatology 15(2) (March-April 1995): 135-138.


Lee, N. J., and N. S. Peckitt.
"Treatment of a Sublingual Hematoma with Medicinal Leeches: Report of Case."
Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery 54(1) (January 1996): 101-103.


Pantuck, A. J., et al.
"Penile Replantation Using the Leech Hirudo medicinalis."
Urology 48(6) (December 1996): 953-956.


Piascik, P.
"Medicinal Leeches: Ancient Therapy Is a Source of Biotech Drugs."
Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association NS37(3) (1997): 285-286.


Smeets, I. M., and I. Engelberts.
"The Use of Leeches in a Case of Post-Operative Life-Threatening Macroglossia."
Journal of Laryngology & Otology 109(5) (May 1995): 442-444.


Van Wingerden, J. J., and J. H. Oosthuizen.
"Use of the Local Leech Hirudo michaelseni in Reconstructive Plastic and Hand Surgery."
South African Journal of Surgery 35(1) (February 1997): 29-31.


Philip J.; Armitage D.W.; Phillips K.R.; Parr N.J.
"Leech therapy for penoscrotal oedema in patients with hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma"
British Journal of Urology International, April 2003, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 579-580(2)


Wallis, R. B.
"Hirudins: From Leeches to Man."
Seminars in Thrombosis & Hemostasis 22(2) (1996): 185-196 


Douglas B. Chepeha; Brian Nussenbaum; Carol R. Bradford; Theodoros N. Teknos
"Leech Therapy for Patients With Surgically Unsalvageable Venous Obstruction After Revascularized Free Tissue Transfer"
Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;128:960-965.


Maher, Ann Butler
"Leech Therapy for Osteoarthritis"
Orthopaedic Nursing. 23(3):220-221, May/June 2004.


Pilcher H.
"Medicinal leeches: stuck on you."
Nature. 2004 Nov 4;432(7013):10-1.


"Leeches and maggots: not appealing, might help with healing."
Harv Health Lett. 2004 Nov;30(1):3.


Michalsen A.; Klotz S.; Ludtke R.; Moebus S.; Spahn G.; Dobos G.J.;
„Effectiveness of Leech Therapy in Osteoarthritis of the Knee. A randomized, controlled trial."
Ann Intern Med. 2003; 139:724-730


Hochberg M. C.
„Multidisciplinary Integrative Approach to Treating Knee Pain in Patients with Osteoarthritis"
Ann Intern Med. 2003; 139:781-783


Lucht, Aubert F.G., Saquin P., Tissot-Guerraz F., Relane M., (1988).
Post-operative skin-flap decongestion, leeches and Aeromonas hydrophila
Journal Hospital Infection 1 1 (I): 92-93


Markwardt F., Hauptman J., Nowak G., Klesen C., Walsman P., (1982).
Pharmacological studies on the antithrombotic action of hirudin in experimental animals.
Thromb. Haemostasis 47 (3), 226-9


Munro, R., F.O.P. Hetchel and R.T. Sawyer, (1989).
Sustained bleeding after a leech bite in the apparent absence of hirudin.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 61 (3): 366-369


Munro, R., C. Powell Jones, and R.T. Sawyer, (1991).
Calin - a platelet adhesion inhibitor from the saliva of the medicinal leech.
Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 2: 179-184


Rao, P., F.B. Bailie, B.N. Bailey (1985).
Leechmania in microsurgery.
The Practitioner 229: 901-904.


Sawyer R.T. (1986).
Leech Biology and Behaviour.
Oxford University Press. Three volumes. 1065pp.


Whitlock M.R., O'Hare P.M., Sanders R., Morrow N.C. (1983).
The medicinal leech and its use in plastic surgery: a possible cause for infection.
Brit. journal of Plastic Surgery, 36, 240-244.


Mercer, N.S.G., D.M. Beere, A.J. Bomermisza and P. Thomas (1987)
Medical leeches as sources of wound infection.
British Medical Journal, 294: 937


Dickson, W.A., P. Botham, K. Hare (1984)
An unusual source of hospital wound infection.
British Medical Journal, 289: 1727-1728


John Santa Ana, DO (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC); Allison Franklin, DO; Brandon J. Goff, DO; William J. Kroski, DO
Leech Therapy as an Innovative Tool in the Healing of Grafts for Traumatic Amputations: A Case Report.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008


Vicky Ferris, RN, CIC, Infection Prevention Specialist, E. Casabar, Pharm D, Clinical Pharmacist, Barnes Jewish Hospital, Saint Louis, MO, Dave Warren, MD, MPH, Hospital Epidemiologist, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO.
Publication Number 197
Ciprofloxacin resistant Aeromonas infection following the use of Medicinal Leeches
Am. J. Of Infection Control, June 2008, E193


L. Scott Levin, MD, Ellis O. Cooper, MD
Clinical Use of Anticoagulants Following Replantation Surgery
JHS Vol 33°, October 2008


Andreas Michalsen et al.
Effectiveness of leech therapy in women with symptomatic arthrosis of the first carpometacarpal joint: A randomized controlled trial
Pain 137 (2008) 452–459


Manolis Manolakakis DMD; Brian M. Smith DMD, MD; Augustine Farias DMD
Presenter: Brian M. Smith DMD
Medical Leeches for salvage therapy in free flap treatment of facial deformities
OOOOE, October 2009 (526)


Amrit Pal Singh
Medicinal leech therapy (Hirudotherapy) : a brief overview
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice xxx (2009) 1–3


Peter A. Green, MD, Adam B. Shafritz, MD
Medicinal Leech Use in Microsurgery
JHS Vol xx, Month 2010


Kai Uwe Schlaudraff, M.D.
Mixed Arterio-Venous Insufficiency in Random Skin Flaps in the Rat: Is the Application of Medicinal Leeches Beneficial?
Journal of Surgical Research 150, 85–91 (2008)


Wylie J, et al.
A new finding about leeches?
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg (2010),